They had so much hate on. They didn't respect African people. I was eighteen and very confused. All along, Mujuru says that there was a "silent voice" telling him that his hope lay in mbira music. Following that voice, Mujuru began spending time in the village of Bandambira, where he studied with a great old mbira player of the same name. In the highland corn fields near Mhondoro, beneath Zimbabwe's big skies full of large birds, battleship clouds, and horsetail sunsets, Mujuru reaffirmed his ties to the mbira.
Soon, he went to live and apprentice with another master player, Simon Mashoko. In , Mujuru formed his first group, Chaminuka, the group he performed with throughout the brutal decade of the independence war. In this period, Mujuru managed to get national radio play for a slyly political song. Perhaps Rhodesian radio programmers heard only quaint nostalgia in the song, but future Zimbabweans got the message.
In the context of war, the mbira became political. Thomas Mapfumo transposed mbira music onto electric instruments to create chimurenga music, named for the chimurenga guerillas. Mujuru says, "When we played mbira, people would come and dance with a special feeling. He was executed by guerillas who thought his bira ceremonies were directed at achieving peace, rather than victory. Mujuru played all of Zimbabwe's five types of mbira, but his specialty is the popular mbira dzavadzimu.
Where mbira can have from fifteen to fifty iron prongs, the mbira dzavadzimu has twenty-two, arranged in three register banks that Mujuru characterizes as "voice of the children, voice of the adults, and voice of the elders. Mbira makers often attach shells or bottle caps to the mbira's tin shield to produce a resonating buzz that compliments the chiming character of the notes. For amplification, players use sticks to jam the instrument into a large, halved calabash that serves as a resonating chamber.
Like any serious mbira player, Mujuru had mastered a large repertoire of traditional songs. But he was also a prolific composer, with many original titles and unique interpretations of traditional songs to his credit. Apart from his musical prowess, Mujuru was an inspirational story teller. Over the years, he transformed the venerable art of telling allegorical tales for children into a personalized narrative and musical form that conveyed both wisdom and delightful humor to adults and children alike.
In one story, a hyena confronted with a dead cow and a dead goat cannot decide which to eat first, and dies of starvation while pacing greedily back and forth between the two prizes. After Zimbabweans ultimately gained independence on April 18, , the work of building a new nation began. Renaming his group Spirit of the People, Mujuru recorded his first album in , using only mbira, hand drums, hosho, and singers.
He sang about brotherhood and healing, crucial themes during a time when the nation's dominant ethnic groups, the Shona and Ndebele, struggled to work out their differences.
Independence and a measure of commercial success brought new possibilities for Mujuru. He helped to found the National Dance Company and became the first African music teacher to teach ethnomusicology at the top western classical tradition Zimbabwe College of Music.
In , Mujuru came to the US for the first time to study and, eventually, lecture and teach mbira at the University of Washington in Seattle. Throughout the s, Mujuru traveled widely, returning to Zimbabwe to record two more traditional albums. Over the past four years, the hospital, which was the first government- run institution in the country to offer this service in , has given the gift of hearing to children.
View all Comments Add Comment. Recent Messages. Please rate before posting your Review 1 Trash 1. Characters Remaining: Share on Twitter. We have sent you a verification email. Soft Sounds and Loud Sounds. Acknowledgment: a good part of the material in the remainder of this section is derived from an excellent book The Master Handbook of Acoustics by F.
Alton Everest, and from the chapter he contributed to the Handbook for Sound Engineers. See references. These sources also contain much additional interesting material. David Worrall has posted his course notes of Physics and Psychophysics of Music on the web, which includes an informative section on the physiology of hearing. A series of tutorial papers on hearing and other related topics has also been posted by HeadWize.
Pressure is an objective physical parameter. The relationship of SPL to the subjective sensitivity to sound is discussed below. The human ear is most sensitive in a band from about 2,, Hz. This is an important region for understanding speech, and could be construed to imply that hearing evolved to match speech. However, did the ear evolve to be sensitive to the speech frequency band, or did human speech evolve to match the band where the ear is most sensitive?
I read somewhere that babies cry in the frequency band where the ear is most sensitive. The sensitivity vs. Music levels vary from about 50 dB for quiet background music to maybe dB for a very loud rock band. Subjectively, a dB change in sound level is barely perceptible; if someone asks you to "turn up the volume a little," you will probably increase the sound by at least 3 dB.
Note that if you have a Watt amplifier and it doesn't play loud enough, you need a Watt amplifier to turn up the volume 3 dB. This can get very expensive very quickly. Interestingly there were some ABX test results on the web which indicate that a 0. However the test procedure allows switching between the two levels as much as you want before making a decision, and the test used pink noise for the sound.
You can hear what a 3 dB difference sounds like yourself with sound files in the sound demo section. A full orchestra can also hit a sound level of dB and more, and then play a quiet passage at dB. Everest quotes one researcher who claims a dB range is required. A vinyl record is good for about dB; a standard compact disc with bit encoding can cover a 96 dB range, and the bit DVD disk format a dB range - in theory.
A problematic aspect of music for a sound system designer is that there are brief transients "spikes" in sound level that far exceed average power levels. Usually people talk about average, or root-mean-square RMS power. RMS power is really only important with respect to the generation of heat. In my opinion, peak power is far more important, since this is when a speaker could be driven into a non-linear region, and when an amplifier would clip. These two effects are major causes of distortion.
I then processed the cuts in Matlab , to generate the outputs of a 3-way crossover. The crossover frequencies are and Hz. Both 1st order Butterworth and 4 th order Linkwitz-Riley filters were modeled. Finally I calculated the average and peak power in each driver band, with results as shown in the tables below.
All powers are shown as a percentage of the same quantity in the unfiltered music. The voltage output of a Linkwitz-Riley coherently adds to unity, but the power addition is less than unity. The peak power is obtained by computing the time-domain waveform of the signal output by the crossover. Then the peak value is found. Typically the peaks occur at different times for the tweeter, midrange, and woofer, so there is no physical significance to the sum of the three powers in this case.
The startling result is that by far the greatest demands on peak power are in the midrange for the Krall and Shostakovich. The 4 th order reduces the demands in the high and low bands, but there is little difference in the mid-band. Only the Talking Heads cut has a greater demand in the bass.
It is also quite significant that even though the average tweeter power is low, the peak tweeter power is not all that much lower than other bands, and in fact is greater than the woofer in some cases! Art and religion are in close contact. However, both represent opposite thoughts, as in art represent free thoughts and religion represents dogmatic thoughts.
Mythology is the source of it. Before christianity, religion was based on mythology. Humans who felt powerless in front of the absolute power of nature also built its primitive artistic creativity with the help of myths and totems. Also, art has developed a long long time under the wings of the church. The church, especially in the middle ages, took control of all the aspects of society's way of living. It controlled them under every aspect possible. In those days, scientists, philosophers were against the religious dogmas, where art were stuck undert that pressure.
Another discordance between art and religion is that the fact that objective reality is the product of the artist's creativity and interpretation does not compute with religious beliefs. In our days, in some paintings, religious figures such as Jesus or God, look like ordinary humans, rather than divine. According to Avner Ziss, the aesthetical pleasure we take from religious music does not come from its holy motives , but on the contrary, from the effect of the beauty feeling that is inside the human soul.
Avner Ziss thinks that every great realistic art causes not the reinforcement of religion, but its vanishment. The struggle that the young revolutionnist bourgeoisie waged influenced the development of art in a positive way.
From the XVIIth century, art got away from its religious and mythological vision and created the concepts of free and creative art and lifestyle. As I mentioned before, this permits possibilities to the general public to express their taste. Aristocratic domination now yielded to the market. The artist was not anymore the representative, the servant of a divine authority.
With galleries came individual exhibitions. But the first personal exhibition is not mediated by a gallery. It is the product of the heroic act of an artist, Courbet. It was made as a rebellion against the Universal Exhibition which purpose was to prove in that Paris was the center of the modern civilization, even the center of the whole universe. Even though Courbet was invited to this exhibition which was a big industry and art show, he didn't attend and put up a tent next to the exhibition palace in which he exposed his own works.
He did it again in 's Universal Exhibition. This second time, Courbet was accompanied by Manet. Both were excluded by the Universal Exhibition. Courbet and Manet are remembered as the pioneers of modernism. I think that this takes root from their art at the same level of their initiative about the represantation of their art.
First, autonomy found its place in the world of thought. Kant, in , published his thesis on aesthetics known as Critique of Judgment in which he differenciated the activity of art from other kinds of activities. He claims that art shouldn't have an expectation of profit and interest. He defends that art does not have other purpose than itself. He thus differenciates art from industry, which is built on profit and interest. Hence he isolates art from the industrial capitalism which is governed by values such as profitability, functionality, bearing of interest; he protects it.
I think that the most provocative work that renders Kant's aesthetics is prone to debate is Duchamp's urinal which belongs to one hundred and fifty years later. It is not anymore a profitable functional object on which we relieve our needs, but it is unique.
Romanticists, who developed the thought of autonomy, do not think that art is the slave of m achines, corporations, engineering, business or managing discipline.
On the contrary, it challenges them. The artist is the owner of his proper production tools and more importantly manages the production process from a to z.
Which means, he is not stranger to his product like industrial producers. This proposition constitutes every socialist utopia that came up until The Ideal society dreams of Fourier's, Saint-Simon's, Marx's are all dominated by art, and purified from alienation.
Modernism is not the imprisonment of art in its own forms, techniques, tools. However, formalist historians who narrate art as advancement of styles and movements that deny overcome each other, approach this issue as such. Nevertheless, put aside the history of art, the history of art of 20 th century wasn't quite lived as such.
Because with modernism, art does not only isolate itself from some forms of thoughts and relationships, but also struggles against their hegemony and creates a threat. It builds a counter-culture by radicalizing its autonomy.
Progressively, it opposes to itself, and to art, and transforms into an anti-art movement. With the rise of avantgarde, it targets institutions that favor autonomy. In other words, art tries to destroy its own autonomy thanks to the autonomy it acquired. That's why it is claimed that the idea of autonomy also contains its self-destruction since Schiller. Avantgarde dreams about re-seizing. It wages its war for the dominance of imagination over intelligence, dreams over reality, subconsciousness over consciousness.
It believes in Baudelaire; for him, if earth was created by imagination, then it should be dominated by it. As a consequence of its maximum isolation from life, art's content becomes its own form.
In other words, its content becomes its form. This phase is one with the social organisation of art. Art, as strongly as with its form, also with its institutions, is not any longer representing the society and life, but itself. It is the struggle to revive art by leaving autonomy.
Because, when it establishes a relationship between art and life, it does not allow an engagement in valid political- morale thoughts. It does not undertake a role such as the pioneerism of social advancement that utopias appropriate themselves to. The problem is not art's social interest realism or its denial aesthetism , the fact that art is autonomous or engaged, it is art itself. It is about art's social operationality, perception: it is its institution.
The goal of avant-guarde is to decimate the institution that contains it. Because what forbits art to life is that institution. Art can only possess life by freeing itself from its own captivity.
Now, avant-guarde is trying to realize this revolution not as a spare to politics, but. With post-modern culture, the accumulative properties of art pieces have taken damage, and with avantgarde, art took its direction towards streets and life.
The rise of pop art gave birth to vulgarisation of art, which led to a heavy industrialization. Ironically, what happened in the 18 th century with the appearance of autonomous art, which was a slave of the industry, now is an industry by itself.
People of each social class consume art pop songs, live action movies, television series , new techniques of production are designed for the sole purpose of perfecting art sound technologies such as MIDI, or miking techniques to optimize the sound quality, or better digital cameras, three dimension effects, enormous studios with huge investments.
And once again, evolution takes place, and counter- movements that struggle the dominating movement. Today, there is a struggle between indistrialized pop culture and free-lance pop art.
While big productions are under strict control of the producers who dictate their requirements according to needs of marketing, free-lance artists try to survive with their own art which is made without the worry of being profitable. And if the revolutionary movement succeeds, it seems that there will be another revolutionary movement that will be born from it, and the cycle will continue, and the evolution of art will never stop.
Filling A Gap. Before coming to the Music here, I didn't have clear answers to questions such as "what is music" or "what is a musician". When thinking in depth, those questions appeared to me always as very difficult to answer. Maybe, these were questions that could be answered very easily with dictionary definitions, but then those answers would not be enough for someone who practices this discipline, such as myself.
For example, the ultimate state that I could imagine is that, a musician should be able to satisfy his own needs. People who know what they write is, who can record themselves, who are able to use instruments or equipments without hesitation, and who are not afraid of innovation and experimenting. Usually, they say "everyone should do what they do". According to them, the instrumentalist should read his notes, play them, and leave. This reflected to me as such, and I think this is wrong.
I always asked myself: "why shouldn't he arrange his songs, or record himself? When it comes to music, I've always been giving priority to the sound itself since my teenage years. This was one of the biggest reasons that I came to this department. I didn't know there were a department in Turkey which emphasized "sound" itself this much. Before studying here, all sounds that could be together were music to me. From the sounds of the construction site two buildings away, to the recreation bell of the neighborhood's elementary school and the dog barking that are happening simultanously.
Since my childhood, I listened to every sound very carefully, and I think this had a great impact. But after studying here, I had a chance to even interroget those. Questions such as : "is truly every sound music? I saw that it was even more important then I thought. It was a huge detail that escaped my mind for years. Most of the responses we wrote at the beginning of the year were parallel to my thoughts of before.
We thought about sound.Match and optimize the time delay or phase response of a subwoofer in a , or n.n monitoring environment, or create thick, ultra–wide sounds and phase sweeps by deliberately manipulating phase of one side of a stereo track. Purpose–built. RSPhaseShifter’s analog–style controls are no accident.